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Glossary

Ablatherm® HIFU

Medical appliance that uses HIFU* to treat prostate cancer.

Antibiotic

Drug used to treat bacterial infections by killing the bacteria responsible.

Benign

Not serious. A benign tumor is not a cancer.

Biopsy

Examination that involves removing small fragments of tissue from an organ in order to examine them under the microscope.

Bladder

Organ in which urine accumulates before being expelled from the body.

Bone scintigraphy (bone scan)

Medical imaging technique used to view the skeleton and detect metastases.

Cancer

Abnormal cells that develop in an uncontrolled manner. An accumulation of such cells is known as a tumor.

Chemotherapy

Cancer treatment involving drugs that are toxic to cancerous cells.

Cryotherapy

Localized treatment that uses cold to destroy the diseased organ.

Curietherapy (radium therapy)

Localized treatment that destroys cells by inserting grains of radioactive material into the affected organ.

Digital rectal examination

Examination in which the physician inserts a finger into the patient's rectum in order to feel the prostate.

DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)

Molecule in a cell nucleus that contains the information required by an organism in order to develop and function.

Erector nerve

These nerves, situated along the perimeter of the prostate, initiate penile erections.

External radiotherapy

Localized cancer treatment that destroys cells by subjecting them to radioactive rays.

General anesthesia

Puts a patient to sleep and induces a loss of sensation.

Gland

Small organ that produces one or more substances in the body.

Gleason

See Gleason score

Gleason score

Result obtained after studying prostate cancer cells under the microscope. This score provides a measure of the degree of aggressiveness of the cancer.

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

Medical technique that treats tumors by using focused ultrasound pulses to generate heat.

Hormone

Substance secreted by a gland that affects the development or functioning of an organ.

Hormone therapy

Generalized treatment of cancer based on the use of hormones.

Impotence

Inability to achieve or maintain a sufficiently strong erection to allow sexual intercourse.

Incontinence

Inability to refrain from urinating or defecating.

Lymph node

Small "lump" located on the lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes play a major role in protecting the body against infections and cancerous cells.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Magnetic field-based painless medical imaging technique.

Metastasis

Tumor formation caused when cancerous cells from an initial tumor migrate towards other parts of the body.

Non-invasive

Describes medical procedures that do not require an incision to be made in the skin.

Outpatient care

Care that enables the patient to leave hospital the same day after an operation.

Prostate

Gland in the male genital system that plays a role in semen production.

Prostatic adenoma

Benign tumor of the prostate that causes it to significantly increase in size.

Prostatic hypertrophy

See prostatic adenoma.

Prostatitis

Benign inflammation of the prostate, treated with antibiotics.

PSA (prostate-specific antigen)

Substance secreted by the prostate that circulates in the bloodstream.

Radical prostatectomy

Surgical procedure that completely removes the prostate.

Rectum

Final section of the large intestine, ending at the anus.

Recurrence

Reappearance of signs indicating the presence of cancer following a period of remission.

Scanner

X ray-based painless medical imaging technique that produces "sliced" images of the human body.

Semen

Fluid released during ejaculation.

Seminal fluid

Liquid comprising secretions from the seminal vesicles and the prostate. It combines with sperm to form semen.

Seminal vesicles

Glands connected to the prostate that produce the main constituent of seminal fluid.

Side effect

Generally adverse secondary consequence of a treatment.

Sphincter

Ring of muscle around a natural orifice, allowing the orifice to open and close.

- The urinary sphincter, located at the prostate outlet, controls the retention and release of urine.
- The anal sphincter controls the retention and release of stools.

Spinal anesthesia

Induces a loss of sensation in the lower part of the abdomen and the lower limbs.

Testosterone

Main male hormone produced by the testicles.

Thermal ablation

Treatment using the Ablatherm HIFU® or Focal One® devices

Tumor

Mass of abnormal cells. A tumor may be either benign or malignant (cancer).

Ultrasound

Painless medical imaging examination performed using an ultrasound scanner.

Urethra

Tube leading from the bladder through which urine leaves the body. The urethra also carries semen during an ejaculation.

Urethral catheter

Flexible tube inserted through the urethra to the bladder, to allow urine to flow away.

Urine

Liquid produced by the kidneys that contains waste products not needed by the organism.

Urologist

Physician who specializes in urinary and genital conditions.

X-rays

Invisible rays that pass through certain components of the human body. This property is harnessed for X-ray examinations and scanner imaging, for example.

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